Fundamentals of Gear Theory and Application
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Fundamentals of Gear Theory and Application

Fundamentals of Gear


and Application

A 2-Day Class

This course provides a solid and fundamental understanding of gear geometry, types and arrangements, and design principles. Starting with the basic definitions of gears, conjugate motion, and the Laws of Gearing, learners are given the tools needed to understand the inter-relation and coordinated motion operating within gear pairs and multi-gear trains. Basic gear system design process and gear measurement and inspection techniques are also explained. In addition, the fundamentals of the step-wise process of working through the iterative design process required to generate a gear pair is reviewed along with the steps and issues involved in design refinement and some manufacturing considerations. Also covered are basic gear measurement techniques, how measurement equipment and test machines implement these techniques, and how to interpret the results from these basic measurements.


Learning Objectives

By completing this course, you will be able to identify, recognize or articulate:

  • The “Law of Gearing”, conjugate action and specifically, involute profiles
  • Various definitions and terms used in gearing
  • Function and operation of all gear arrangements
  • Preliminary design considerations and the gear system design process
  • Practical gear measurement and inspection techniques, tools and equipment
  • “Best Practices” regarding gear system design
  • New and automated gear design systems


Who Should Attend

The intended audience for this course is powertrain engineers, engineering directors and managers, component suppliers, vehicle platform powertrain development specialists, and those involved in the design, development, application, or measurement and inspection of gears or geared systems and assemblies.  More specifically, anyone responsible for the following will benefit:

  • Mechanical power transmission system design, development, durability assessment and application
  • Application and development of geared systems technologies
  • Management of transmission designers and manufacturers
  • Supply of components and sub-systems to mechanical power transmission system manufacturers



Learners should have an undergraduate engineering degree.



  • Principles of gears
    • Purpose of gears
    • Basic concepts — Law of gearing; common tooth forms
    • Classification of gears
    • Definitions and terms used in gearing
    • Velocity ratio
    • Pitch surfaces
  • Gear tooth action
    • Conjugacy
    • Profile curves
    • Surface of action
    • Profile sliding
  • Gear geometry and nomenclature
    • Principle of planes
    • Tooth nomenclature
    • Blank nomenclature
  • Gear arrangements
    • Simple gear train
    • Compound gear train — ratios
    • Epicyclic — configurations (solar, planetary, star); ratios; tooth number selection and build requirements; application
  • Preliminary design considerations
    • Gear type selection
    • Preliminary estimate of size
    • Stress formulations
    • Gear Drawing Data
  • Gear system design process
    • Calculation of gear tooth data
    • Gear rating practice
  • Gear design process
    • Layout
    • Root geometry
    • Backlash
  • Gear measurement and inspection
    • Dimension over pins
    • Pin diameter
    • Modify pin diameter and dimension over pins
    • Pin contact point
    • Charts – involute; lead; red liner
    • Dimension sheet
  • Gear design systems and best practices
    • Common proportions
    • Interchangeability
    • Tooling considerations
    • Mounting considerations
    • Best practices
    • Application